Wednesday, December 16, 2009

Boosting Your Self-Esteem - Improving the Way You Feel About Yourself

"Self-esteem is the reputation we acquire with ourselves."
- Nathaniel Branden
Leading self-esteem researcher and theorist

Improving self-esteem is a very personal journey. It's a key part of feeling happy within ourselves, and of feeling that we're succeeding in the things that matter to us.

Positive self-esteem helps you to be yourself, handle adversity, and believe that you'll win through, despite setbacks. It's an inner force that sustains you, and gives you the courage you need to be the person you want to be.

Low self-esteem, on the other hand, does the opposite. It's connected to self-doubt, and to a general feeling that you're not quite good enough to meet life's challenges. If you have low self-esteem, you may believe that you aren't capable of achieving your dreams, and you may even believe that you shouldn't dream at all. In fact, low self-esteem is used to diagnose many mental disorders, and it can be associated with to a variety of negative emotions, including anxiety, sadness, hostility, shame, embarrassment, loneliness and lack of spontaneity.

What Is Self-Esteem?
You're probably familiar with the idea of self-esteem. It's most often associated with self-confidence, but self-esteem is more than just confidence – it goes deeper. In fact, some people argue that you can have self-confidence and still have low self-esteem – most notably if you approach life with a "fake it ‘til you make it" attitude (in other words, "pretend" until you succeed).

Healthy self-esteem doesn't involve faking anything. And although there's significant debate over the definition of self-esteem, a leading theory is that it's a combination of two factors: competence and worthiness.

Other models have focused on one of these factors or the other. However, it's the relationship between the two that provides the best description. Nathaniel Branden says the following in his book "The Psychology of Self-Esteem":

Self-esteem has two interrelated aspects: it entails a sense of personal efficacy and a sense of personal worth. It is the integrated sum of self-confidence and self-respect. It is the conviction that one is competent to live and worthy of living.

Competence and Worthiness
The competence element of self-esteem deals with how far you believe that you have the skills and abilities you need to succeed in areas that matter to you.

This isn't generalized success, or even a general sense of competence. It's specific to areas of your life that are particularly important to you. For example, if you can sing and dance and entertain a crowd like no one else, that won't contribute to positive self-esteem if what you really value is academic success. Likewise, if you rise to the top of your profession, but you're not proud of that profession, it's unlikely that it will help your sense of self-esteem much.

It's this idea of "value" that brings us to the other element of self-esteem: worthiness. This is where you express your overall evaluation of yourself. It's based on your values, and on whether you routinely behave in a way that is consistent with these values. Together, these factors influence whether you believe you're "good enough", and whether you like and respect the person you are.

By combining competence and worthiness, and by looking at how they relate to each other, we get a full and dynamic definition of self-esteem. Just feeling good about yourself isn't self-esteem. There has to be a competence element, so that your behaviors result in positive actions, not destructive ones. Too great a sense of worthiness can lead to conceit, and even narcissism. Healthy self-esteem keeps those things in balance.

Improving Self-Esteem
Now that you know what self-esteem is, you're in a better position to improve yours in a robust and balanced way.

Here are some tips for improving your self-esteem:
Think about yourself positively – The only person who can change your view of yourself is you! No one else can give you self-esteem – you have to build it by thinking about and using all of the positive things in your life. Make sure that you get into the habit of positive thinking, and learn how to detect and defeat patterns of self-sabotage. And be your own best cheerleader and supporter!

Take pride in your accomplishments – When you do something well, celebrate it. Don't wait for someone else to tell you how wonderful you are. Tell yourself!

Set goals – The more successes you achieve, the better you'll feel about yourself. Goal setting is a great technique for targeting, tracking and recognizing success. It helps you to build competence and, from this, build a sense of pride and a feeling of worthiness. Make sure that you embrace goal setting!

Be consistent – You improve self-esteem when you act in ways that are consistent with your values. If you find yourself in a compromising or difficult situation, do all that you can to make a decision that is consistent with these values. Achieve your goals with integrity, and don't undermine your self-esteem by cheating, or acting in a dishonest way.

Remember that you aren't perfect – Don't be too hard on yourself. We all make mistakes, and that's often OK, just as long as we learn from them. The only person's standards you have to meet are your own: stop worrying about what others think, and focus on the great things about yourself. If you do, your inner confidence will shine through, and more than compensate for any shortcomings you might have.

Look after your physical self – Being active can improve self-esteem. Activities that improve your overall health help you feel more in control, and give you a sense of satisfaction that carries though to other areas of your life.

Key Points
The way you feel about yourself is key to self-esteem. You're the one in control, and you can make a difference. If you like yourself, and believe that you deserve good things in life, you'll have high self-esteem. If you dislike yourself or criticize yourself excessively, you'll have low sense of self-esteem.

Having healthy self-esteem is important because it helps you get through life's challenges and achieve the things that matter most to you. As such, make a commitment to yourself to value what you do and who you are!
For your Success & Glory!

Saturday, November 7, 2009

How To Improve Your Study Habits

30 Tips Guide for all Students
1. Start by keeping a priority assignment notebook or to-do journal.
2. Keep a notebook for all of your school subjects, bring it to class and update it often.
3. Attend your classes.
4. Listen attentively to your teacher, and participating classmates.
5. Ask questions in class if there is a need to clarify some points.
6. Listen well in class, and don’t allow problems to distract you.
7. Keep your attention focused on the subject.
8. Take class notes.
9. Have a note-taking system.
10. Have a private shorthand system for taking notes.
11. Study effectively. Have sufficient study materials to help you.
12. Read. Underline your textbooks.
13. Look up new words in the dictionary.
14. Read even tables, charts, and graphs.
15. Research in the library. Use the (card) catalogue.
16. Organize your notes before writing a paper.
17. When making papers, do a first draft.
18. Proofread for spelling and punctuation errors.
19. Submit all of your assignments.
20. Prepare well for tests and exams.
21. Keep a long term calendar of scheduled tests, reports, projects, and other school activities.
22. Also study on a regular basis.
23. Follow a daily schedule. Have a regular place to work and study.
24. Study with your friends.
25. Try to always learn in school. Always make use of your mind.
26. Also take care of your body. Eat healthy meals.
27. Get seven to eight hours of sleep each night.
28. Reward yourself with R & R, rest, relaxation, recreation.
29. Keep track of you progress.
30. Constantly improve your study habits. Make adjustments or improvements on any or all of the suggestions above.

You can improve your study skills, and eventually, improve your grades.

Read, Learn & Flourish!

Tuesday, September 15, 2009

How to Prepare for Exams?

Exams can be a dreaded word, especially if you’re teaching to high school students. Students’ notion of exam is memorization, comprehension and pressure. So this time around, aside from teaching them lessons that they will be quizzed on, why not impart several nuggets of wisdom on how to prepare for exams? After all, exams do not end in high school. And the better adjusted they are to the concept of exams, the better the grades they’ll get.

Set realistic expectations and goals
Not everyone is an honor student, so expecting to jump a year level or two overnight is just a road to disappointment. Improving grades by doing well on exams should be set over a realistic time period. This way, the student is in control and is motivated.

Goals can be set with to-do lists, priority lists, notes on monthly calendars. But the fact that students have goals will not be worth anything if they are not achieved. Try to get them to write their goals in these broad categories: career, family, health, finances, intellectual, and hobbies, among others. This way, all the things they do can fall into one big picture.

Take a break
In Stephen Covey's book “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People”, he wrote that people should sharpen their saws. It refers to a story of someone meeting a guy in the woods trying to cut down a tree with a saw. The guy asked the woodcutter to take a break and sharpen the saw so it would go faster, but the woodcutter replied that he had been cutting for five hours. He didn’t have time to sharpen his saw!

Stress gets relieved with exercise, when the body gets an influx of endorphins. In order to stay motivated and alert, students should do enjoyable exercises, get proper rest and eat properly. This could also serve as the much-needed break of the mind and body from stressful situations (like cramming for exams). Taking time to recharge physically and emotionally increases productivity.

Prepare in advance
Cramming is not the answer to most exams, and so does the myth that facts stick easier to the brain if studying is done on the day of the exam. Preparing in advance is much more effective, and makes the student more confident in taking the exam. This is because there was time allotted for background research, perusal the school’s exam databases for past exams on the subject, and total comprehension of the issues raised in the lessons.

Get rid of barriers
The biggest barrier is procrastination, and the best way to overcome it is the “Swiss Cheese Method.” It means dividing things to do into smaller chunks (ex. 15 minute tasks) with rewards at the end of the task. This helps students and even you to focus on one issue at a time.

The next biggest barrier is interruptions. If there are phone calls, visits and other problems to deal with, just leave the premises, and fit them into another schedule. Lastly, the third barrier is stress. Did you know that 75% of all worries never happen, but stressing over them can waste so many hours?

The best way to get rid of these barriers is to manage time properly. Make it into a habit, and see the concrete improvements in the students’ academic and overall performance.

Nurture yourself
Nurture the greatest asset your students have—themselves. To be an effective student, an effective time manager, they should enhance not just the physical and mental dimensions of their lives, but also the social/emotional and the spiritual.

Light reading is better than watching television, as it integrates academic issues into real life situations. Develop good communication with friends and family. Engage into activities and pursuits that can make students find out more about themselves. Discover spirituality so there will be a core in their lives.

These things, if taken seriously, can be beneficial to students in the long run. Achievement does not come with just a snap of the fingers. So never give up!

Monday, September 7, 2009

CBSE's New Grading Sysatem for class X


With Board exams being made optional from the academic year 2010-11, a new system of evaluation – Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) – based on grades has been approved. It comprises formative and summative assessment of the student to be done over two terms – first and second -during the year-long academic calendar.

Summative Assessment Based on the term-end examination
1) There will be two evaluations each in the first and second terms.
2) Each evaluation will carry 10 marks apiece.

Formative Assessment To evaluate and grade class work, homework, assignment and project work
1) There will be one term-end exam for each term.
2) The first term-end exam will carry 20 marks.
3) The second term-end exam will carry 40 marks.

EVALUATIONStudents of class IX and X will be evaluated on a 9-point grading system. Each grade, given on the basis of both formative and summative assessments, will correspond to a range of marks as indicated below:
A1 95 and above
A2 90 to 94
A3 85 to 89
B1 80 to 84
B2 70 to 79
C1 60 to 69
C2 50 to 59
C3 33 to 49
D Less than 33

Points to Remember:
(i) Assessment of theory/practical papers in external subjects shall be in numerical scores.In addition to numerical scores, the Board shall indicate grades in the marks sheets issued to the candidates in case of subjects of external examinations. In case of internal assessment subjects, only grades shall be shown.

(ii) Subjects of internal examination in Class X the assessment shall be made on a five point scale I.e. A,B,C,D & E.

(iii) The grades shall be derived from scores in case of subjects of external examination. In case of subjects of internal assessment, they shall be awarded by the schools.

(iv) The qualifying marks in each subject of external examination shall be 33% . However at Senior School Certificate Examination, in a subject involving practical work, a candidate must obtain 33% marks in the theory and 33% marks in the practical separately in addition to 33% marks in aggregate, in order to qualify in that subject.

(v) For awarding the grades, the Board shall put all the passed students in a rank order and will award grades as follows:

• A1 : Top 1/8th of the passed candidates
• A2 : Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
• B1 : Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
• B2 : Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
• C1 : Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
• C2 : Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
• D1 : Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
• D2 : Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
• E : Failed candidates

(a) In case of a tie, all the students getting the same score, will get the same grade. If the number of students at a score point needs to be divided into two segments, the smaller segment will go with the larger.

(b) Method of grading will be used in subjects where the number of candidates who have passed is more than 500.

(c) In respect of subjects where total number of candidates passing in a subject is less than 500, the grading would be adopted on the pattern of grading and distribution in other similar subjects.

Thursday, May 14, 2009


By C. Radhakrishnan

Dear students, I know very well one question that haunts you all the time ‘how can I memorise whatever I learned for the next exam’. Here are some ways that might help you memorise:
• Decide to remember.
• Take regular breaks.
• Review notes regularly: after an hour, after a day, after a week, after a month, and so on. (You need an excellent time schedule to make sure that this happens, but it is extremely effective.)
• Use multisensory memories, i.e. remember using as many representations as you can.
• Generate visual images that involve moving, interaction, and colour.
• Use the same background music to review as when you learned, and perhaps associate particular music with particular topics.
• Organise meaningfully using key words.
• Look briefly at a mind map, then put it away and try to recreate it. Repeat until you can reproduce it perfectly.
• Use flash cards with the key content on them.
• Use higher-order mind maps to connect individual mind maps together.
• Review at bedtime.
• Number points.
• Over learn, i.e. learn beyond the point at which you have complete recall.
• Compress the amount of material by chunking and using keywords.

Make you know and feel
There is no need to tell time and again, self-confidence is the key to success in any aspect of human life and it is very true even in memorisation. Demonstrating to yourself that you really do understand and remember can increase your confidence that your learning is really working. Teaching someone else, or writing mock or practice assignments and tests, can be useful here.

Reviewing and reflecting on the learning process
After every learning session, review the process you followed. What worked, what didn't, what would you do differently next time. Do the same thing at the end of each week, after each assignment, and after each test. Make notes of what you've learned about learning, and use them to improve your next learning session.

If you have any other successful tool to memorise please let me know.

Sunday, May 10, 2009

What makes a good learner?

A good learner is........

an active listener
willing to voice their opinions
shows initiative
prepared to learn from their mistakes.

How Can I Draw Up An Effective Revision Timetable?

Plan your revision carefully. The following top 10 tips should help:

1. Divide your time into subjects.

2. Consult your lesson notes and the syllabus for each course to make sure you cover all the necessary topics. Ask your teachers for advice if necessary.

3. Consult your exam timetable. You will have longer to revise for some exams than others so plan accordingly.

4. Be sure to include any revision sessions that you’d like to attend at school. Many departments are running revision classes during study leave and “booster” sessions immediately before the exams. Ask your teachers.

5. Reflect upon your strengths and weaknesses and allot time accordingly e.g. give more time to topics you find tricky.

6. Are you at your best in the mornings, afternoons or evenings? It may be best to put the most challenging topics at these times.

7. Vary your timetable. Don't plan to spend all morning on one subject. An hour per subject is fine.

8. Plan in “blanks” which can be used when things don’t go according to plan.

9. Do allow yourself mini-breaks between sessions and quality relaxation time.

10. Be prepared to update your timetable as your revision progresses. So don't spend hours colouring it in or making it look great on the computer!

Which Revision Strategies Will Work Best For Me?

1. The more you DO with the information you have to learn the more you will understand and remember it.
2. Focus on the methods listed under your preferred learning style.
3. However, remember that it is important to use a variety of approaches – VA and K.
4. Ask your teacher for help if necessary e.g. to recommend suitable websites, to explain something once more, for a missing worksheet.

Sunday, March 29, 2009

School Counselors Help You Cope

School counselors know how to listen and help. They’ll take your problem seriously and work with you to find a good solution. School counselors are trained to help with everything — and it doesn’t have to be just school stuff. A counselor can help you deal with the sadness when someone has died as well as advise you on taking the right classes to get into your dream college.

It takes a lot of training to be a school counselor. Most not only have college degrees but also master’s degrees, as well as special training and certification in counseling. One of the many good things about school counselors is that they are up-to-date on all the top things that affect students, including any trends that might affect your school.

School counselors can give you all sorts of tips and support on solving problems and making good decisions. Chances are that whatever problem you have, your counselor has seen it before — and has lots of good advice on how to help you work through it. Counselors can give you tips on standing up for yourself if you’re being bullied, managing stress, talking to your parents, and dealing with anger and other difficult moods. Counselors also can advise you on problems you may have with a teacher, such as communication difficulties or questions over grades.

School counselors are plugged in to the rest of the school community and, in many cases, the outside community as well. So they can refer students to outside resources like substance abuse treatment centers, professional therapists, and even health clinics.

It can help to know the different types of support your counselor offers — even if you don’t think you need it now. Some schools and school districts use their websites to explain what the counselor does and how to get a counseling appointment. You may find their services listed under headings like “student resources,” ” student services,” or “student counseling.”

Your school’s website may also explain the roles of other school staff members who can help students with problems or school issues. Depending on the size of your school, these people may include school psychologists, tutors, college or career counselors, and school nurses. The counselor’s role varies from school to school and district to district, so don’t assume your counselor provides the same services as the counselor in a friend’s school.

How Do I See the Counselor?
You may have been assigned a counselor when you started the school year. Or your school may leave it up to you to go to the counseling office on your own. A counselor might also visit your class to talk about certain subjects and let you know when he or she is available. In some schools, teachers or school nurses refer students to counselors if they think there’s something the student needs to work through. Different schools have different policies on putting students in touch with counselors.

Your school’s website, administrator’s office, or a trusted teacher can also tell you how to contact the counselor for an appointment. In many schools, there’s a guidance secretary who coordinates appointments. Many counselors are willing to meet with students at times that fit into the student’s schedule — such as before or after school or during lunch.

It’s probably a good idea to visit your counselor and get to know him or her even if you don’t have a problem. This helps you feel comfortable with the counselor in case you ever do need to meet in a time of crisis. It’s usually easier to talk about a tough issue or a problem when you already feel comfortable with the counselor. Meeting your counselor when you’re not in the middle of a crisis also gives you a chance to discuss such issues as what the counselor will keep confidential and how he or she works with a student to resolve a problem.

Student-Counselor Meetings

Counselors meet with students individually or in small groups. The most common setting for most students is a private meeting just between the student and the counselor. Most school counselors have offices where you can sit down and talk.

You don’t need to know exactly what’s bothering you when you talk with the school counselor. It’s perfectly OK just to make an appointment because you’re feeling bad or not doing as well in school as you’d like. It’s the school counselor’s job to help people figure out what’s going on. In fact, it’s often better to see your counselor as soon as you know something’s up, even if you don’t know what the trouble is. Chances are you’ll be able to solve a problem faster when you have the skill and resources of the counselor behind you.

How often you meet with your counselor depends on the issue. Some concerns are dealt with in a one-time meeting. Others require regular meetings for a while. It all depends on the topic at hand and the plan that you and your counselor decide on.

Counselors also sometimes meet students in groups. Group meetings can really help people who are dealing with similar issues, such as a divorce. In these group settings, people can share their feelings and learn coping skills. Not only do you get great ideas in a group setting, but it can also help to know that other students are going through the same thing and that they understand.

Counselors often come into the classroom, too, to teach a class on a subject that affects everyone, such as good study skills.

Sometimes the counselor might meet with you and a teacher or you and a parent — especially if the teacher or your parent has asked for the meeting.

How Confidential Is It?

When you meet privately with a school counselor, your conversation will most likely be confidential. The counselor isn’t going to go blabbing your business around school. Different schools have different policies, though. So talk directly with your counselor about what he or she considers confidential.
In very rare cases, a counselor is unable to keep information confidential. A counselor who thinks that someone is at risk of being harmed is required by law to share that information. Even in these rare cases, the counselor will share that information only with the people who need to know.

People sometimes worry that other students will think they’re seeing the counselor because they have major problems or they’re in trouble. But in most schools the counselor deals with lots of school issues — as well as personal ones. So you could be meeting to get career counseling or advice on which classes to take for college. Your friends and classmates don’t need to know why you’re seeing the counselor unless you choose to tell them.

Your school counselor is someone who is separate from your life — a neutral adult who isn’t a parent, relative, or teacher. Your school counselor isn’t a therapist. (So if you see your counselor, it’s not the same as getting therapy.) If you need help in some way that the school counselor can’t provide, he or she can give you information about other resources, such as the name of a therapist.

No matter what your problem, try to think of the counselor as someone who’s on your side. Even if you’ve had a bad experience in the past with another counselor or a private therapist, don’t hesitate to contact your school counselor — or talk to the counseling office about seeing someone else if you don’t click with your current counselor. Every counselor is different, and most understand that it’s natural for people to be more comfortable with some individuals than others.

Don’t be surprised if your parents know your school counselor. They may even be in touch with each other. Sometimes counselors offer workshops for parents, with or without their kids, about topics such as study skills or preventing drug abuse. It’s good for the counselor and your parents to know each other when everything is going OK. That way, if any problems come up — like if you’re being bullied or there’s a death in the family and you have to be out of school — they’ll be able to work together comfortably.

If you’re seeing your counselor and your parents don’t know about it, don’t worry that the counselor will talk to them about your meetings. Unless you’ve given the counselor the feeling that you may harm yourself or others, what’s said in your meetings will stay just between you and the counselor.

School counselors are all about helping to make your school experience the best it can be. The role of the school counselor today is very different from what it was like when your parents were in school. Instead of just focusing on schoolwork and careers, today’s counselors are there for students in a broader way. They help students handle almost any problem that might get in the way of learning, guide students to productive futures, and try to create a positive environment for everyone at school. So if you need a counselor’s advice, just ask!

Wednesday, March 25, 2009

All about B.E. , B.Tech , Engineering

What is B. Tech?

Bachelor of Technology is an undergraduate academic degree conferred after completion of a three or four year program of studies at an accredited university or accredited university-degree level college in the Commonwealth of Nations, Norway, Republic of Ireland, the United States, and other countries. The common abbreviation for Bachelor of Technology is B.Tech., or B.Tech.(Hons), if awarded with honours.

The degree is awarded to those who have undertaken a Bachelor of Science degree program supplemented by either occupational placements (e.g., supervised practica or internships) or practice-based classroom courses. Due to the supplemental requirements, the degree normally takes at least four years.

In India, the Bachelor of Technology degree is used by the highly ranked and autonomous institutes such as Indian Institute of Technology (IITs), Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIITs), National Institutes of Technology (NITs) and Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT formerly UDCT) for professional engineering programs. Most other institutions in India are affiliated to a university and thus use the Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) degree.

What is B.E.?

Bachelor of Engineering (commonly abbreviated as BE or BEng) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three, four or five years of studying engineering at an accredited university in the United States, United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Finland, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Nigeria, China, India and Pakistan. It is a professional degree that involves a requirement for undertaking some engineering work. This is controlled by the national professional engineering society or institute that accredits the universities, usually regulated by law.

Some institutions award either a Bachelor of Science (BSc) or Bachelor of Applied Science (BASc) degree to undergraduate students of engineering study. In some cases, Bachelor of Engineering degrees are given to students who take engineering courses as a majority of their course load. However, many universities in Canada only award the Bachelor of Applied Science degree for their accredited undergraduate engineering programs (never the Bachelor of Engineering or Bachelor of Science degrees).

In India, the Bachelor of Engineering is a degree awarded by many universities. Bachelor of Engineering degree is awarded to a student who has completed four years course ( eight semesters ) in engineering. The entry to B.E is 10+2 years of schooling or completion of Pre University course( PUC ). Diploma holders in engineering are also eligible for entry into B.E. Diploma holders of engineering enter degree course, by lateral entry which gives some concessions in study of subjects. The B.E degree is awarded by the university in field of engineering in which student has studied for four years

What is B.Arch?

The Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course of study that generally lasts four years in India.

Specialization Fields & Their Scope

1. Aeronautical/Aerospace/Astronautical Engineering
Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft, spacecraft, and related topics. Originally called aeronautical engineering and dealing solely with aircraft, the broader term “aerospace engineering” has replaced the former in most usage, as flight technology advanced to include craft operating outside Earth’s atmosphere. In analogy with “aeronautical engineering”, the branch is sometimes referred to as astronautical engineering, although this term usually only concerns craft which operate in outer space.

2. Automotive Engineering

Automotive engineering is a branch of Mechanical Engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems

3. Biochemical Engineering
Biochemical engineering is a branch of chemical engineering that mainly deals with the design and construction of unit processes that involve biological organisms or molecules. Biochemical engineering is often taught as a supplementary option to chemical engineering due to the similarities in both the background subject curriculum and problem-solving techniques used by both professions. Its applications are used in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and water treatment industries

4. Biomedical Engineering

Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical field. It combines the design and problem solving expertise of engineering with the medical expertise of physicians to help improve patient health care and the quality of life of healthy individuals. As a relatively new discipline, much of the work in biomedical engineering consists of research and development, covering an array of fields: bioinformatics, medical imaging, image processing, physiological signal processing, biomechanics, biomaterials and bioengineering, systems analysis, 3-D modeling, etc. Examples of concrete applications of biomedical engineering are the development and manufacture of biocompatible prostheses, medical devices, diagnostic devices and imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs, and pharmaceutical drugs.

5. Building Engineering

Building engineering, commonly known as architectural engineering, is an emerging engineering discipline that concerns with the planning, design, construction, operation, renovation, and maintenance of buildings, as well as with their impacts on the surrounding environment. As building construction projects are increasingly large and complex, the discipline requires pertinent knowledge integrated from traditional well-established disciplines.

6. Civil engineering for building structures and foundation

Civil Engineering for building structures and foundations include mechanical engineering for Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning system (HVAC), and for mechanical service systems; Physics for building science, lighting and acoustics. Electrical engineering for power distribution, control, and electrical systems; Chemistry and biology for indoor air quality; Architecture for form, function, building codes and specifications; Economics for project management.

7. Computer Engineering
Computer engineering (also called electronic and computer engineering) is a discipline that combines elements of both electrical engineering and computer science. Computer engineers are electrical engineers that have additional training in the areas of software design and hardware-software integration. In turn, they focus less on power electronics and physics. Computer engineers are involved in many aspects of computing, from the design of individual microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design. This engineering discipline is especially useful for integrating embedded systems into devices and machines (for example, several embedded computer systems are used to control and monitor the many subsystems in motor vehicles). Usual tasks involving computer engineers include writing software and firmware for embedded microcontrollers, designing VLSI chips, designing analog sensors, designing mixed signal circuit boards, and designing operating systems. Computer engineers are also suited for robotics research, which relies heavily on using digital systems to control and monitor electrical systems like motors, communications, and sensors.

8. Civil Engineering
Civil engineering is a broad field of engineering dealing with the planning, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures, or public works, as they are related to earth, water, or civilization and their processes. Most civil engineering today deals with power plants, bridges, roads, railways, structures, water supply, irrigation, the natural environment, sewer, flood control, transportation and traffic.

9. Chemical Engineering

Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e.g. chemistry and physics), with mathematics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. As well as producing useful materials, chemical engineering is also concerned with pioneering valuable new materials and techniques; an important form of research and development. A person employed in this field is called a chemical engineer.
Chemical engineering largely involves barfing and reproducing. Chemical engineers in this branch are usually employed under the title of process engineer. The development of the large-scale processes characteristic of industrialized economies is a feat of chemical engineering, not chemistry. Indeed, chemical engineers are responsible for the availability of the modern high-quality materials that are essential for running an industrial economy.

10. Construction Engineering
Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. Construction of such projects requires knowledge of engineering and management principles and business procedures, economics, and human behavior. Construction engineers engage in the design of structures temporary, cost estimating, planning and scheduling, materials procurement, selection of equipment, and cost control.

11. Control Engineering

Control engineering is the engineering discipline that focuses on mathematical modeling of systems of a diverse nature, analyzing their dynamic behavior, and using control theory to create a controller that will cause the systems to behave in a desired manner.

12. Industrial Engineering

Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering that concerns the development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people, knowledge, equipment, energy, material and process. Industrial engineering draws upon the principles and methods of engineering analysis and synthesis, as well as mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems. Industrial engineers work to eliminate wastes of time, money, materials, energy and other resources.

13. Information Technology
Information technology (IT) is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. In short, IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information.

14. Instrumentation Engineering

Instrumentation is defined as “the art and science of measurement and control”. Instrumentation can be used to refer to the field in which Instrument technicians and engineers work, or it can refer to the available methods of measurement and control and the instruments which facilitate this.

15. Electrical Engineering
Electrical engineering (sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic engineering) is a semi-professional and professional engineering discipline that deals with the study and/or application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. The field first became an identifiable occupation in the late nineteenth century commercialization of the electric telegraph and electrical power supply. The field now covers a range of sub-studies including those that deal with power, electronics, optoelectronics, digital electronics, analog electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, control systems, electromagnetics, photonics, signal processing and telecommunications.

16. Electronic Engineering
Electronic engineering is a professional discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. The term now also covers a large part of electrical engineering degree courses as studied at most universities. Its practitioners are called electronics engineers.

17. Environmental Engineering
Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. Environmental engineering involves water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, and public health issues. It also includes studies on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects.

18. Geomatic Engineering

19. Manufacturing Engineering

20. Marine Engineering
Marine Engineers are the members of a ship’s crew that operate and maintain the propulsion and other systems onboard the vessel. Marine Engineering staff also deal with the “Hotel” facilities onboard, notably the sewage, lighting, air conditioning and water systems. They deal with bulk fuel transfers, and require training in firefighting and first aid, as well as in dealing with the ship’s boats and other nautical tasks- especially with cargo loading/discharging gear and safety systems, though the specific cargo discharge function remains the responsibility of deck officers and deck workers.

21. Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It requires a solid understanding of key concepts including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics and energy. Practitioners of mechanical engineering, known as mechanical engineers, use these principles and others in the design and analysis of automobiles, aircraft, heating & cooling systems, manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, and more.

22. Material Engineering

Materials science is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. It includes elements of applied physics and chemistry, as well as chemical, mechanical, civil and electrical engineering. With significant media attention to nanoscience and nanotechnology in the recent years, materials science has been propelled to the forefront at many universities, sometimes controversially.

23. Mechatonic Engineering

Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (”mecha” for mechanisms, i.e., machines that ‘move’), electronic engineering (”tronics” for electronics), and software engineering. The purpose of this interdisciplinary engineering field is the study of automata from an engineering perspective and serves the purposes of controlling advanced hybrid systems.

24. Mining Engineering

Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. The need for mineral extraction and production is an essential activity of any technically proficient society. As minerals are produced from within a naturally occurring environment, disturbance of the environment as a result of mineral production is a given. Modern mining engineers must therefore be concerned not only with the production and processing of mineral commodities, but also with the mitigation of damage or changes to an environment as a result of that production and processing.

25. Nuclear Engineering

Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the atomic nucleus gleaned from principles of nuclear physics and the interaction and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and components, specifically, nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants and/or nuclear weapons. The field can also include the study of nuclear fusion, medical applications of radiation, nuclear safety, heat transport, nuclear fuels technology, nuclear proliferation, and the effect of radioactive waste or radioactivity in the environment.

26. Ocean Engineering

Ocean engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the design, analysis and operation planning of systems that operate in an oceanic environment. Examples of systems range from oil platforms to submarines, from breakwaters to sailboats. Common to all are the conditions of the ocean including waves, seawater, and hydrostatic pressure.

27. Software Engineering
Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. The discipline of software engineering encompasses knowledge, tools, and methods for defining software requirements, and performing software design, software construction, software testing, and software maintenance tasks. Software engineering also draws on knowledge from fields such as computer engineering, computer science, management, mathematics, project management, quality management, software ergonomics, and systems engineering.

28. Systems Engineering

Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means for enabling the realization and deployment of successful systems. It can be viewed as the application of engineering techniques to the engineering of systems, as well as the application of a systems approach to engineering efforts. Systems Engineering integrates other disciplines and specialty groups into a team effort, forming a structured development process that proceeds from concept to production to operation and disposal. Systems Engineering considers both the business and the technical needs of all customers, with the goal of providing a quality product that meets the user needs.

29. Aeronautical Engineering / Aerospace Engineering
This course trains an engineer in designing, constructing, analyzing, testing, development and manufacturing of commercial and military aircrafts, missiles, and spacecrafts. Aeronautics focuses on systems that operate in the Earth’s atmosphere and Astronautics on those operating in space. Within each division, your choice of a career path can take you on a journey through widely varying disciplines. Aerospace engineers design, develop, test, and help manufacture commercial and military aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. They develop new technologies in commercial aviation, defense systems, and space exploration.

The bachelor’s degree programme offers curriculum covering fundamentals of propulsion, electronics, automatic control guidance, theory of aerodynamics, structural analysis, materials science, and fluid dynamics.

Educational Attainment: BE / B. Tech in aeronautical Engineering -Postgraduate program in aeronautical engineering for B.Sc students
- B.Tech and Ph.D. program in aeronautical Engineering
- Associate membership program conducted by Aeronautical Society of India (ASI).
- It is possible to take a degree in Physics or electronics to work in this area and leave more option open.

Employment opportunity in Aerospace / Aeronautical engineering:

Companies and government agencies in the aeronautics field employ a broad range of professionals. Chiefly these are aerospace, mechanical, and electrical engineers, but they also include engineers, scientists, and technicians from a variety of specialties. Among the specific disciplines employed by the aeronautics industry are aerodynamics and fluid dynamics; propulsion, guidance, navigation and control; aircraft structures and materials; mechanical design, electronics (including radar) weapons systems and flight control; communications; systems engineering; software engineering; and computer engineering. Four major divisions exist in the Aeronautics side of the Aerospace Industry: military aircraft, civilian aircraft, aircraft engines, and missile systems. Following are the few places these engineers can look forward for their employment.

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, DRDO, Air India, Indian Airlines, ISRO. There are limited opportunities in this branch, therefore a large number take Research and development areas in Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Civil Aviation, Defense Laboratories or Civil Aviation departments.

o Agriculture Engineering
o Automobile Engineering
o Biomedical Engineering
o Chemical Engineering
o Civil Engineering
o Ceramic Engineering
o Electrical and Electronics Engineering
o Energy Engineering
o Environmental Engineering
o Industrial Engineering
o Marine Engineering
o Mechanical Engineering
o Micro Electronics Engineering
o Mining Engineering
o Nuclear Engineering
o Physics Engineering
o Telecommunication Engineering
o Textile Engineering

Monday, February 2, 2009

Easy Tools for Memorising

By C. Radhakrishnan

Dear students, I know very well one question that haunts you all the time ‘how I can memorise whatever I learned?’ Here are some ways that might help you memorise:

• Decide to remember.

• Take regular breaks.

• Review notes regularly: after an hour, after a day, after a week, after a month and so on. (You need an excellent time schedule to make sure that this happens, but it is extremely effective.)

• Use multisensory memories, i.e. remember using as many representations as you can.

• Generate visual images that involve moving, interaction, and colour.

• Use the same background music to review as when you learned, and perhaps associate particular music with particular topics.

• Organise meaningfully using key words.

• Look briefly at a mind map, then put it away and try to recreate it. Repeat until you can reproduce it perfectly.

• Use flash cards with the key content on them.

• Use higher-order mind maps to connect individual mind maps together.

• Review at bedtime.

• Number points.

• Over learn, i.e. learn beyond the point at which you have complete recall.

• Compress the amount of material by chunking and using keywords.

Make you know and feel

There is no need to tell time and again, Self-confidence is the key to success in any aspects of human life and it is very true even in memorisation. Demonstrating to yourself that you really do understand and remember can increase your confidence that your learning is really working. Teaching someone else, or writing mock or practice assignments and tests, can be useful here.

Reviewing and reflecting on the learning process

After every learning session, review the process you followed. What worked, what didn't, what would you do differently next time. Do the same thing at the end of each week, after each assignment, and after each tests. Make notes of what you've learned about learning, and use them to improve your next learning session.

If you have any other successful tool to memorise please let me know.

Happy Learning!

Tuesday, January 6, 2009

Creating Positive Change

by Laurie Cameron

It's that time again ...have you made your New Year's Resolutions? Or are you like many well-intentioned people who have decided it's a losing battle and not worth the aggravation?

New Year's Resolutions are always filled with good intentions and hope for a better life this year than we had last year. But what happens when February rolls around and our good intentions have become a source of frustration and self-recrimination? There are many reasons why resolutions don't stick. See if any of these feel familiar:

* Too big or too unrealistic; they create a sense of "Overwhelm-Induced Inertia."
* Floating Resolutions; they're not attached to your vision.
* Externally motivated; they're what someone else thinks you should do or want.
* There's no detailed plan or strategy to reach them, they're all talk and no action; or your plan is too broad and not specific enough. Lack of motivation or follow-through.
* Too rigid or absolute.

If you want to create positive change in your life, here are some strategies to help you increase your chances for success:

1. Choose a resolution that feels manageable, yet still challenges you.
2. Be sure your resolution or goal is clearly attached to your vision; achieving it will take you toward your vision rather than away from it.
3. Be clear that your resolution is something YOU want.
4. Have a plan that not only defines the major steps over time, but also the small, individual action steps you can take on a daily basis.
5. Create some system of accountability; enlist the help of a Buddy who is as motivated as you are.
6. As you work your plan, allow the process to evolve and be refined.

Step up and resolve to make it a powerful and fulfilling 2009!

Saturday, January 3, 2009



Please make use of all the following links and prepare well for the exam.
Wish you all the very best!

CBSE Class X HOT Questions
Social Science-1 : CBSE HOTS Questions Social-1
Social Science-2 : CBSE HOTS Questions Social-2
Social Science-3 : CBSE HOTS Questions Geography-3
Social Science-4 (English Medium) : CBSE HOTS Questions Social Science-4
Social Science-5 : CBSE HOTS Questions Social Science-5
English : CBSE HOTS Questions English
Science : CBSE HOTS Questions Science
Science MCQ : CBSE HOTS Questions Science MCQ
Mathematics : CBSE HOTS Questions Mathematics


Informatics Practices : Informatics

Thursday, January 1, 2009

The Top Ten Study Tips Of All Time

By Michael Tipper at

There comes a time in every student's life when those things that you dread begin to loom on the horizon. Depending upon how confident you are about them, your horizon will either be measured in months, or maybe days. What am I talking about? Of course I mean examinations. You may be about to go into mid term mock examinations or you could be facing your final tests.

Whatever your situation and whenever you are going to be sat in an examination room it is never too early to start getting ready for those tests. Thorough preparation will provide you with a strong foundation and will give you the confidence and belief that you can do them and that you will get the grades you want.

But where do you start and which of the hundreds of study tips and study skill ideas do you use?

I am often asked for my top ten tips when it comes to exam success and over the years I have accumulated many ideas, some of which are more effective than others. However if I were to limit myself to just the top 10 that I felt were the most powerful based on all of the work I have done in this field, here are the first five that I think are the most powerful.
1. Find your own deep and compelling reason to successfully learn your subject and pass your exams.

This really is the most important of the study tips I shall share with you here because your success will be deeply rooted in your motivation to learn. Many kids at school do not want to be there and can't be bothered to try which is often why they fail. It does not mean that they are unable to learn, it just means that they have not applied themselves to the work at hand. I know that this is often true because I have met literally hundreds of people who "failed" at school by conventional standards yet later in life made the decision to go back to studying a subject because they wanted to do it. And because of their motivation to succeed they did.

So what does that mean to you? Well understand that you are driven by emotional needs and not necessarily logical ones. If we were driven by logic, the world would be a much better place. So you have to find a deep emotional reason for achieving success as a student. And if you can dig deep and find that reason then nothing will stop you because you will find a way. I really can't stress how important this is.

2. Plan your time to include study, revision and social commitments - a balance of having fun, taking breaks and studying is vital.

Balance is very important to have a successful and rewarding life and the same is true when you are a student. OK you could spend every waking hour reading every book you could find and learning everything you could and yes you would pass your exams provided you had not burnt out. But it would not be fun, you would have no friends and you would definitely be out of balance.

Taking appropriate breaks and giving yourself little rewards when you have finished an essay or learned something new for your exams is vital for your success. This is because it keeps you in balance and gives you a degree of variety that keeps you fresh and alert. Yes having a night out with your friends is good for you - but only if it is as a reward for doing good work and is as part of your overall plan.

3. Use multi-coloured Mind Maps for your notes.

My friend and mentor Tony Buzan developed the most powerful thinking tool ever (and I am not exaggerating here) when he invented the Mind Map. Imagine being able to get the key facts from an entire book on a single page in a way that was not only easy to remember but would stay in your memory for as long as you wanted it.

Imagine having a thinking tool that allowed you to prepare essays and assignments in a fraction of the time than you do at the moment AND have them much better. Imagine being able to give a powerful hour long presentation from a single page of colourful notes that you put together in about 10 minutes.

Well all these are possible with the Mind Map. It is an amazing tool that combines the power of association, the fact that we have a very strong visual processing mechanism and that it combines right and left brain processing.

I have seen what Mind Maps can do for students of all ages and all abilities and if I had my way it would be a compulsory tool taught to kids from a very young age.

4. Review your notes regularly to reinforce your new-found knowledge.

This is another very simple but extremely powerful tip for you. The experience of most students is that the learning that takes place in the classroom is really an information gathering exercise. When it comes to revising for their exams at the end of the year they go to their notes and often can't remember ever seeing that information before. They know they must have because the notes are in their handwriting but they can't remember anything! So the preparation for exams becomes a re-learning exercise.

This study tip is so simple and powerful yet most will not bother. If at the end of every day, every week and every month you quickly scanned what you have learned, made a few key word notes and then reviewed those ultra-condensed notes regularly, you would be amazed at how much you could remember. This only need take 10 minutes at the end of the day, half an hour at the end of the week and maybe an hour or two at the end of the month.

Each time you review what you have learned, even in condensed key word format, it is more deeply ingrained in your memory.

5. Swiftly skim through your text books and course material before you read them in depth to give you an overview of your subject.

Now there is not enough space here to explain why this tip is important because it is a fundamental part of learning how to read faster and absorb more information. Just trust me on this one and before you start reading, skim through your book (no more than 10 minutes) to get a feel for the contents.

As you read in greater depth later on, some of what you have got from the quick scan will help put into context that information and allow you to make the necessary links in your mind and memory.

Doing this will often stop you from getting stuck at any point because you will have a flavour of what is to come later in the book and this added preview can help the understanding of earlier information.

So rather than hang about, let's get onto the next five to complete my Top Ten Study Tips Of All Time. And when I say use these and you won't fail, I don't do so lightly because together these ten tips work like magic (if you will make them work).

6. Learn how to remember lists of things by linking each item to a location on a journey or route you are familiar with around your town. You could even use your own home.

At some point, once you have understood your subject, you will need to be able to memorise it. Many people think that just understanding it is enough to learn it but unfortunately that is not the case and so some memorization is necessary.

The most powerful way of doing this is to create a "filing system" in your mind. One way to do this is to create a little journey in your imagination (it can be a real place or you can make it up). See for example the chair, the bed, the TV, the door and the window in your bedroom. If you wanted to remember a sequence of items you would link an outrageous (and therefore memorable) picture to each location.

To recall the information, simply revisit the journey in your own mind and "see" the information in the silly pictures you have created.

7. Before you do any revision, warm up by doing some gentle exercise to relieve any tension in your body and to get a rush of healthy oxygen flowing to your brain.

There is a saying - "a healthy body, a healthy mind" - and nowhere is this truer than when it comes to learning. Two things happen when you physically warm up before studying. First of all you get rid of any physical tension that will create stress in the body and mind (not good for learning) and secondly you will get a rush of oxygen to the brain which will help you think more clearly (definitely good for learning). I was reading something written by a former World Memory Champion recently, and he noticed that his memory improved dramatically the more exercise he did and the fitter he became.

8. Do past papers under thorough exam conditions as often as possible to familiarise yourself with the format and the pressures of working under exam conditions.

If you are training in a sport or practising a musical instrument, you will practise the plays or rehearse the pieces for the big day. It would not make sense to spend months doing push ups and then turn up on the big day and expect to play soccer really well. It would also be unwise to only practice scales on your instrument and then when the big performance comes up expect a perfect recital.

So the same is true of exams. Fortunately these days you can get hold of past exam papers from previous years. Do these, under the same exam conditions, over and over again so that when the big day comes you will have exam experience under your belt.

Doing this will give you more confidence, much better exam technique and an insight into how the examiners for your subject think. Remember practice makes perfect.

9. In an exam, make sure you read the question completely and fully understand what the examiner wants before you allocate your time and begin answering the questions.

This is common sense but you would be amazed at how many people do not do this. Take your time, plan what you are going to write and then write it.

10. If you are faced with a mental block breathe deeply, relax and ask yourself "If I did know the answer to this question, what would it be?"

This might sound silly but if you do it with a positive expectation that your very powerful subconscious will give you the answer, then you will be amazed at what comes to mind. The combination of the breathing, relaxation and expectation is the key. Of course you have had to have done the preparation beforehand because this won't work with information that you have not previously learned or covered in class.

So there you have my top 10 tips spread over these two articles. Each of the tips is very powerful and just doing one of them will make a big difference to your success ... but if you do all 10 ... Wow!

Each are very powerful and just doing one of them will make a big difference to your success...but if you do all 10...Wow

To sum up:
1. Find your own deep and compelling reason to successfully learn your subject and pass your exams.

2. Plan your time to include study, revision and social commitments - a balance of having fun, taking breaks and studying is vital.

3. Use multi-coloured Mind Maps® for your notes.

4. Review your notes regularly to reinforce your new-found knowledge.

5. Swiftly skim through your text books and course material before you read them in depth to give you an overview of your subject.
6. Learn how to remember lists of things by linking each item to a location on a journey or route you are familiar with around your town. You could even use your own home.

7. Before you do any revision, warm up by doing some gentle exercise to relieve any tension in your body and to get a rush of healthy oxygen flowing to your brain.

8. Do past papers under thorough exam conditions as often as possible to familiarise yourself with the format and the pressures of working under exam conditions.

9. In an exam, make sure you read the question completely and fully understand what the examiner wants before you allocate your time and begin answering the questions.

10. If you are faced with a mental block breathe deeply, relax and ask yourself "If I did know the answer to this question, what would it be?"

Good luck and please do let me know how these work for you.

Contact the Author:
Mob: +44(0)777 553 2612
Tel: +44(0)207 873 2013
Fax: +44(0)207 526 2047
Skype: michaeltipper

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