Sunday, March 29, 2009

School Counselors Help You Cope

School counselors know how to listen and help. They’ll take your problem seriously and work with you to find a good solution. School counselors are trained to help with everything — and it doesn’t have to be just school stuff. A counselor can help you deal with the sadness when someone has died as well as advise you on taking the right classes to get into your dream college.

It takes a lot of training to be a school counselor. Most not only have college degrees but also master’s degrees, as well as special training and certification in counseling. One of the many good things about school counselors is that they are up-to-date on all the top things that affect students, including any trends that might affect your school.

School counselors can give you all sorts of tips and support on solving problems and making good decisions. Chances are that whatever problem you have, your counselor has seen it before — and has lots of good advice on how to help you work through it. Counselors can give you tips on standing up for yourself if you’re being bullied, managing stress, talking to your parents, and dealing with anger and other difficult moods. Counselors also can advise you on problems you may have with a teacher, such as communication difficulties or questions over grades.

School counselors are plugged in to the rest of the school community and, in many cases, the outside community as well. So they can refer students to outside resources like substance abuse treatment centers, professional therapists, and even health clinics.

It can help to know the different types of support your counselor offers — even if you don’t think you need it now. Some schools and school districts use their websites to explain what the counselor does and how to get a counseling appointment. You may find their services listed under headings like “student resources,” ” student services,” or “student counseling.”

Your school’s website may also explain the roles of other school staff members who can help students with problems or school issues. Depending on the size of your school, these people may include school psychologists, tutors, college or career counselors, and school nurses. The counselor’s role varies from school to school and district to district, so don’t assume your counselor provides the same services as the counselor in a friend’s school.

How Do I See the Counselor?
You may have been assigned a counselor when you started the school year. Or your school may leave it up to you to go to the counseling office on your own. A counselor might also visit your class to talk about certain subjects and let you know when he or she is available. In some schools, teachers or school nurses refer students to counselors if they think there’s something the student needs to work through. Different schools have different policies on putting students in touch with counselors.

Your school’s website, administrator’s office, or a trusted teacher can also tell you how to contact the counselor for an appointment. In many schools, there’s a guidance secretary who coordinates appointments. Many counselors are willing to meet with students at times that fit into the student’s schedule — such as before or after school or during lunch.

It’s probably a good idea to visit your counselor and get to know him or her even if you don’t have a problem. This helps you feel comfortable with the counselor in case you ever do need to meet in a time of crisis. It’s usually easier to talk about a tough issue or a problem when you already feel comfortable with the counselor. Meeting your counselor when you’re not in the middle of a crisis also gives you a chance to discuss such issues as what the counselor will keep confidential and how he or she works with a student to resolve a problem.

Student-Counselor Meetings

Counselors meet with students individually or in small groups. The most common setting for most students is a private meeting just between the student and the counselor. Most school counselors have offices where you can sit down and talk.

You don’t need to know exactly what’s bothering you when you talk with the school counselor. It’s perfectly OK just to make an appointment because you’re feeling bad or not doing as well in school as you’d like. It’s the school counselor’s job to help people figure out what’s going on. In fact, it’s often better to see your counselor as soon as you know something’s up, even if you don’t know what the trouble is. Chances are you’ll be able to solve a problem faster when you have the skill and resources of the counselor behind you.

How often you meet with your counselor depends on the issue. Some concerns are dealt with in a one-time meeting. Others require regular meetings for a while. It all depends on the topic at hand and the plan that you and your counselor decide on.

Counselors also sometimes meet students in groups. Group meetings can really help people who are dealing with similar issues, such as a divorce. In these group settings, people can share their feelings and learn coping skills. Not only do you get great ideas in a group setting, but it can also help to know that other students are going through the same thing and that they understand.

Counselors often come into the classroom, too, to teach a class on a subject that affects everyone, such as good study skills.

Sometimes the counselor might meet with you and a teacher or you and a parent — especially if the teacher or your parent has asked for the meeting.

How Confidential Is It?

When you meet privately with a school counselor, your conversation will most likely be confidential. The counselor isn’t going to go blabbing your business around school. Different schools have different policies, though. So talk directly with your counselor about what he or she considers confidential.
In very rare cases, a counselor is unable to keep information confidential. A counselor who thinks that someone is at risk of being harmed is required by law to share that information. Even in these rare cases, the counselor will share that information only with the people who need to know.

People sometimes worry that other students will think they’re seeing the counselor because they have major problems or they’re in trouble. But in most schools the counselor deals with lots of school issues — as well as personal ones. So you could be meeting to get career counseling or advice on which classes to take for college. Your friends and classmates don’t need to know why you’re seeing the counselor unless you choose to tell them.

Your school counselor is someone who is separate from your life — a neutral adult who isn’t a parent, relative, or teacher. Your school counselor isn’t a therapist. (So if you see your counselor, it’s not the same as getting therapy.) If you need help in some way that the school counselor can’t provide, he or she can give you information about other resources, such as the name of a therapist.

No matter what your problem, try to think of the counselor as someone who’s on your side. Even if you’ve had a bad experience in the past with another counselor or a private therapist, don’t hesitate to contact your school counselor — or talk to the counseling office about seeing someone else if you don’t click with your current counselor. Every counselor is different, and most understand that it’s natural for people to be more comfortable with some individuals than others.

Don’t be surprised if your parents know your school counselor. They may even be in touch with each other. Sometimes counselors offer workshops for parents, with or without their kids, about topics such as study skills or preventing drug abuse. It’s good for the counselor and your parents to know each other when everything is going OK. That way, if any problems come up — like if you’re being bullied or there’s a death in the family and you have to be out of school — they’ll be able to work together comfortably.

If you’re seeing your counselor and your parents don’t know about it, don’t worry that the counselor will talk to them about your meetings. Unless you’ve given the counselor the feeling that you may harm yourself or others, what’s said in your meetings will stay just between you and the counselor.

School counselors are all about helping to make your school experience the best it can be. The role of the school counselor today is very different from what it was like when your parents were in school. Instead of just focusing on schoolwork and careers, today’s counselors are there for students in a broader way. They help students handle almost any problem that might get in the way of learning, guide students to productive futures, and try to create a positive environment for everyone at school. So if you need a counselor’s advice, just ask!

Wednesday, March 25, 2009

All about B.E. , B.Tech , Engineering

What is B. Tech?

Bachelor of Technology is an undergraduate academic degree conferred after completion of a three or four year program of studies at an accredited university or accredited university-degree level college in the Commonwealth of Nations, Norway, Republic of Ireland, the United States, and other countries. The common abbreviation for Bachelor of Technology is B.Tech., or B.Tech.(Hons), if awarded with honours.

The degree is awarded to those who have undertaken a Bachelor of Science degree program supplemented by either occupational placements (e.g., supervised practica or internships) or practice-based classroom courses. Due to the supplemental requirements, the degree normally takes at least four years.

In India, the Bachelor of Technology degree is used by the highly ranked and autonomous institutes such as Indian Institute of Technology (IITs), Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIITs), National Institutes of Technology (NITs) and Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT formerly UDCT) for professional engineering programs. Most other institutions in India are affiliated to a university and thus use the Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) degree.

What is B.E.?

Bachelor of Engineering (commonly abbreviated as BE or BEng) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three, four or five years of studying engineering at an accredited university in the United States, United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Finland, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Nigeria, China, India and Pakistan. It is a professional degree that involves a requirement for undertaking some engineering work. This is controlled by the national professional engineering society or institute that accredits the universities, usually regulated by law.

Some institutions award either a Bachelor of Science (BSc) or Bachelor of Applied Science (BASc) degree to undergraduate students of engineering study. In some cases, Bachelor of Engineering degrees are given to students who take engineering courses as a majority of their course load. However, many universities in Canada only award the Bachelor of Applied Science degree for their accredited undergraduate engineering programs (never the Bachelor of Engineering or Bachelor of Science degrees).

In India, the Bachelor of Engineering is a degree awarded by many universities. Bachelor of Engineering degree is awarded to a student who has completed four years course ( eight semesters ) in engineering. The entry to B.E is 10+2 years of schooling or completion of Pre University course( PUC ). Diploma holders in engineering are also eligible for entry into B.E. Diploma holders of engineering enter degree course, by lateral entry which gives some concessions in study of subjects. The B.E degree is awarded by the university in field of engineering in which student has studied for four years

What is B.Arch?

The Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course of study that generally lasts four years in India.

Specialization Fields & Their Scope

1. Aeronautical/Aerospace/Astronautical Engineering
Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft, spacecraft, and related topics. Originally called aeronautical engineering and dealing solely with aircraft, the broader term “aerospace engineering” has replaced the former in most usage, as flight technology advanced to include craft operating outside Earth’s atmosphere. In analogy with “aeronautical engineering”, the branch is sometimes referred to as astronautical engineering, although this term usually only concerns craft which operate in outer space.

2. Automotive Engineering

Automotive engineering is a branch of Mechanical Engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems

3. Biochemical Engineering
Biochemical engineering is a branch of chemical engineering that mainly deals with the design and construction of unit processes that involve biological organisms or molecules. Biochemical engineering is often taught as a supplementary option to chemical engineering due to the similarities in both the background subject curriculum and problem-solving techniques used by both professions. Its applications are used in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and water treatment industries

4. Biomedical Engineering

Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical field. It combines the design and problem solving expertise of engineering with the medical expertise of physicians to help improve patient health care and the quality of life of healthy individuals. As a relatively new discipline, much of the work in biomedical engineering consists of research and development, covering an array of fields: bioinformatics, medical imaging, image processing, physiological signal processing, biomechanics, biomaterials and bioengineering, systems analysis, 3-D modeling, etc. Examples of concrete applications of biomedical engineering are the development and manufacture of biocompatible prostheses, medical devices, diagnostic devices and imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs, and pharmaceutical drugs.

5. Building Engineering

Building engineering, commonly known as architectural engineering, is an emerging engineering discipline that concerns with the planning, design, construction, operation, renovation, and maintenance of buildings, as well as with their impacts on the surrounding environment. As building construction projects are increasingly large and complex, the discipline requires pertinent knowledge integrated from traditional well-established disciplines.

6. Civil engineering for building structures and foundation

Civil Engineering for building structures and foundations include mechanical engineering for Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning system (HVAC), and for mechanical service systems; Physics for building science, lighting and acoustics. Electrical engineering for power distribution, control, and electrical systems; Chemistry and biology for indoor air quality; Architecture for form, function, building codes and specifications; Economics for project management.

7. Computer Engineering
Computer engineering (also called electronic and computer engineering) is a discipline that combines elements of both electrical engineering and computer science. Computer engineers are electrical engineers that have additional training in the areas of software design and hardware-software integration. In turn, they focus less on power electronics and physics. Computer engineers are involved in many aspects of computing, from the design of individual microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design. This engineering discipline is especially useful for integrating embedded systems into devices and machines (for example, several embedded computer systems are used to control and monitor the many subsystems in motor vehicles). Usual tasks involving computer engineers include writing software and firmware for embedded microcontrollers, designing VLSI chips, designing analog sensors, designing mixed signal circuit boards, and designing operating systems. Computer engineers are also suited for robotics research, which relies heavily on using digital systems to control and monitor electrical systems like motors, communications, and sensors.

8. Civil Engineering
Civil engineering is a broad field of engineering dealing with the planning, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures, or public works, as they are related to earth, water, or civilization and their processes. Most civil engineering today deals with power plants, bridges, roads, railways, structures, water supply, irrigation, the natural environment, sewer, flood control, transportation and traffic.

9. Chemical Engineering

Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e.g. chemistry and physics), with mathematics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. As well as producing useful materials, chemical engineering is also concerned with pioneering valuable new materials and techniques; an important form of research and development. A person employed in this field is called a chemical engineer.
Chemical engineering largely involves barfing and reproducing. Chemical engineers in this branch are usually employed under the title of process engineer. The development of the large-scale processes characteristic of industrialized economies is a feat of chemical engineering, not chemistry. Indeed, chemical engineers are responsible for the availability of the modern high-quality materials that are essential for running an industrial economy.

10. Construction Engineering
Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. Construction of such projects requires knowledge of engineering and management principles and business procedures, economics, and human behavior. Construction engineers engage in the design of structures temporary, cost estimating, planning and scheduling, materials procurement, selection of equipment, and cost control.

11. Control Engineering

Control engineering is the engineering discipline that focuses on mathematical modeling of systems of a diverse nature, analyzing their dynamic behavior, and using control theory to create a controller that will cause the systems to behave in a desired manner.

12. Industrial Engineering

Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering that concerns the development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people, knowledge, equipment, energy, material and process. Industrial engineering draws upon the principles and methods of engineering analysis and synthesis, as well as mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems. Industrial engineers work to eliminate wastes of time, money, materials, energy and other resources.

13. Information Technology
Information technology (IT) is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. In short, IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information.

14. Instrumentation Engineering

Instrumentation is defined as “the art and science of measurement and control”. Instrumentation can be used to refer to the field in which Instrument technicians and engineers work, or it can refer to the available methods of measurement and control and the instruments which facilitate this.

15. Electrical Engineering
Electrical engineering (sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic engineering) is a semi-professional and professional engineering discipline that deals with the study and/or application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. The field first became an identifiable occupation in the late nineteenth century commercialization of the electric telegraph and electrical power supply. The field now covers a range of sub-studies including those that deal with power, electronics, optoelectronics, digital electronics, analog electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, control systems, electromagnetics, photonics, signal processing and telecommunications.

16. Electronic Engineering
Electronic engineering is a professional discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. The term now also covers a large part of electrical engineering degree courses as studied at most universities. Its practitioners are called electronics engineers.

17. Environmental Engineering
Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. Environmental engineering involves water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, and public health issues. It also includes studies on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects.

18. Geomatic Engineering

19. Manufacturing Engineering

20. Marine Engineering
Marine Engineers are the members of a ship’s crew that operate and maintain the propulsion and other systems onboard the vessel. Marine Engineering staff also deal with the “Hotel” facilities onboard, notably the sewage, lighting, air conditioning and water systems. They deal with bulk fuel transfers, and require training in firefighting and first aid, as well as in dealing with the ship’s boats and other nautical tasks- especially with cargo loading/discharging gear and safety systems, though the specific cargo discharge function remains the responsibility of deck officers and deck workers.

21. Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It requires a solid understanding of key concepts including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics and energy. Practitioners of mechanical engineering, known as mechanical engineers, use these principles and others in the design and analysis of automobiles, aircraft, heating & cooling systems, manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, and more.

22. Material Engineering

Materials science is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. It includes elements of applied physics and chemistry, as well as chemical, mechanical, civil and electrical engineering. With significant media attention to nanoscience and nanotechnology in the recent years, materials science has been propelled to the forefront at many universities, sometimes controversially.

23. Mechatonic Engineering

Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (”mecha” for mechanisms, i.e., machines that ‘move’), electronic engineering (”tronics” for electronics), and software engineering. The purpose of this interdisciplinary engineering field is the study of automata from an engineering perspective and serves the purposes of controlling advanced hybrid systems.

24. Mining Engineering

Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. The need for mineral extraction and production is an essential activity of any technically proficient society. As minerals are produced from within a naturally occurring environment, disturbance of the environment as a result of mineral production is a given. Modern mining engineers must therefore be concerned not only with the production and processing of mineral commodities, but also with the mitigation of damage or changes to an environment as a result of that production and processing.

25. Nuclear Engineering

Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the atomic nucleus gleaned from principles of nuclear physics and the interaction and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and components, specifically, nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants and/or nuclear weapons. The field can also include the study of nuclear fusion, medical applications of radiation, nuclear safety, heat transport, nuclear fuels technology, nuclear proliferation, and the effect of radioactive waste or radioactivity in the environment.

26. Ocean Engineering

Ocean engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the design, analysis and operation planning of systems that operate in an oceanic environment. Examples of systems range from oil platforms to submarines, from breakwaters to sailboats. Common to all are the conditions of the ocean including waves, seawater, and hydrostatic pressure.

27. Software Engineering
Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. The discipline of software engineering encompasses knowledge, tools, and methods for defining software requirements, and performing software design, software construction, software testing, and software maintenance tasks. Software engineering also draws on knowledge from fields such as computer engineering, computer science, management, mathematics, project management, quality management, software ergonomics, and systems engineering.

28. Systems Engineering

Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means for enabling the realization and deployment of successful systems. It can be viewed as the application of engineering techniques to the engineering of systems, as well as the application of a systems approach to engineering efforts. Systems Engineering integrates other disciplines and specialty groups into a team effort, forming a structured development process that proceeds from concept to production to operation and disposal. Systems Engineering considers both the business and the technical needs of all customers, with the goal of providing a quality product that meets the user needs.

29. Aeronautical Engineering / Aerospace Engineering
This course trains an engineer in designing, constructing, analyzing, testing, development and manufacturing of commercial and military aircrafts, missiles, and spacecrafts. Aeronautics focuses on systems that operate in the Earth’s atmosphere and Astronautics on those operating in space. Within each division, your choice of a career path can take you on a journey through widely varying disciplines. Aerospace engineers design, develop, test, and help manufacture commercial and military aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. They develop new technologies in commercial aviation, defense systems, and space exploration.

The bachelor’s degree programme offers curriculum covering fundamentals of propulsion, electronics, automatic control guidance, theory of aerodynamics, structural analysis, materials science, and fluid dynamics.

Educational Attainment: BE / B. Tech in aeronautical Engineering -Postgraduate program in aeronautical engineering for B.Sc students
- B.Tech and Ph.D. program in aeronautical Engineering
- Associate membership program conducted by Aeronautical Society of India (ASI).
- It is possible to take a degree in Physics or electronics to work in this area and leave more option open.

Employment opportunity in Aerospace / Aeronautical engineering:

Companies and government agencies in the aeronautics field employ a broad range of professionals. Chiefly these are aerospace, mechanical, and electrical engineers, but they also include engineers, scientists, and technicians from a variety of specialties. Among the specific disciplines employed by the aeronautics industry are aerodynamics and fluid dynamics; propulsion, guidance, navigation and control; aircraft structures and materials; mechanical design, electronics (including radar) weapons systems and flight control; communications; systems engineering; software engineering; and computer engineering. Four major divisions exist in the Aeronautics side of the Aerospace Industry: military aircraft, civilian aircraft, aircraft engines, and missile systems. Following are the few places these engineers can look forward for their employment.

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, DRDO, Air India, Indian Airlines, ISRO. There are limited opportunities in this branch, therefore a large number take Research and development areas in Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Civil Aviation, Defense Laboratories or Civil Aviation departments.

o Agriculture Engineering
o Automobile Engineering
o Biomedical Engineering
o Chemical Engineering
o Civil Engineering
o Ceramic Engineering
o Electrical and Electronics Engineering
o Energy Engineering
o Environmental Engineering
o Industrial Engineering
o Marine Engineering
o Mechanical Engineering
o Micro Electronics Engineering
o Mining Engineering
o Nuclear Engineering
o Physics Engineering
o Telecommunication Engineering
o Textile Engineering